The Elements of Astronomy, Or, The World as it Is, and as it Appears
Anna C. Lowell
Online | 381 Pages | English

As such a book, The Elements of Astronomy, or the World as it is, and as it appears, is offered by a teacher to the teaching and studying public. Had the writer aimed only to excite an interest in the subject, it would have been shorter and more attractive , but it is intended, likewise, to exercise the student’s memory, reason, and imagination.

Skylab’s Astronomy and Space Sciences
Charles A. Lundquist
Online | NA Pages | English

This book covers the following topics: Stellar and Galactic Astronomy, Interplanetary Dust, Observations of Comet Kohoutek, Energetic Particle, The Earth’s Atmosphere and Orbital Environment.

Elementary Astronomy
Dr. James N Pierce-Minnesota State University
PDF | 134 Pages | English

The book presents a simplified view of astronomy. Equations have been minimized, numbers have been rounded, and the black-and-white diagrams can be easily reproduced on a chalkboard – which is where most of them originated. (Nice color images of planets, moons, and such do not appear here, as they can easily be found on the web.) Terms are explained in the chapters, as needed, and also collected in the glossary at the end of the book. This note covers the following topics: introduction, earth, moon, and sun, gravity and orbits, earth motions and seasons, moon motions and phases, eclipses, the solar system, planet properties, motions of the night sky, constellations and star charts and conclusion.

Notes on Stellar Astrophysics
Dr. James N Pierce-Minnesota State University
PDF | 299 Pages | English

This note covers the following topics: overview, radiative transfer, atomic structure, thermodynamic equilibrium, stellar spectra, line profiles, opacity sources, stellar atmospheres, stellar interior models, energy generation and transport, degeneracy, stellar synthesis, sequels to the main sequence, evolutionary endpoints and evolution conclusions.

An Introduction to Astronomy
Forest Ray Moulton
PDF | 518 Pages | English

Forest Ray Moulton was an American astronomer.In this book he explains all the fundamental principles in astronomy.

Astronomy and Astrophysics
National Research Council Space Science Boar
Online | 82 Pages | English

In this new book, a distinguished panel makes recommendations for the nation’s programs in astronomy and astrophysics, including a number of new initiatives for observing the universe.

Exploring Black Holes General Relativity and Astrophysics
Prof. Edmund Bertschinger and Prof. Edwin F. Taylor
Online | NA Pages | English

This note covers the following topics: Einstein’s field equations, x-ray binaries and the search for black holes, the universe, cosmic structure formation; From inflation to galaxies.

Astrophysics II
Prof. Paul Schechter
Online | NA Pages | English

Covered topics are: What is a Galaxy?, Gravitational Potentials, Orbits in Spherical Potentials and Integrals, Orbits in Axisymmetric Potentials, Epicyclic Approximation, Equilibria of Stellar Systems, Boltzmann Equation, Jeans’ Equations in Spherical Coordinates, Jeans’ Equations Applied, Jeans’ Theorem, Stability: Jeans Mass and Spiral Structure, Gravitational Mirages (aka lenses) via Fermat’s Principle, Applied Gravitational Lensing, Weak Lensing, Clusters of Galaxies, The Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect, Cosmological Parameters, Growing Modes in Expanding Universes: Jeans Redux.

Basics Positional astronomy (PDF 29P)
Dave Kilkenny
PDF | 29 Pages | English

Covered topics are: Elements of spherical astronomy, Horizontal or altitude and azimuthal co-ordinates, Hour angle and Declination co-ordinates, Ecliptic co-ordinates, Galactic co-ordinates, Precession and Nutation, Parallax, Proper motion, The aberration of starlight, Atmospheric refraction and dispersion.

Handbook of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics
Martin V. Zombeck
HTML | NA Pages | English

This note covers the following topics: general data, astronomy and astrophysics, radio astronomy, infrared astronomy, ultraviolet astronomy, xray astronomy, gammaray astronomy, cosmic rays, earths atmosphere and environment, relativity, atomic physics, electromagnetic radiation, plasma physics, experimental astronomy and astrophysics, aeronautics and astronautics, mathematics, statistics, radiation safety and astronomical catalogs.

Galaxy Bulges and Elliptical Galaxies (PDF 16P)
Dimitri A. Gadotti
PDF | 16 Pages | English

Our knowledge on the central components of disk galaxies has grown substantially in the past few decades, particularly so in the last. This frantic activity and the complexity of the subject promote confusion in the community. In these notes the author discuss the concept of galactic bulge and its different flavors. This also address fundamental scaling relations and the bulge-elliptical galaxy connection, their central black holes and formation models. In particular, this book aims at conveying three important notions: box peanuts are just the inner parts of bars; the physical reality of two different families of bulges is evident and at the high mass end, at least, classical bulges are not just scaled down ellipticals surrounded by disks.

Basic Mathematics for Astronomy (PDF 34P)
Dr. Glenn Tiede
PDF | 32 Pages | English

Each section in this manual begins with a description of each set of skills. You should read these descriptions and if you fully understand the concepts, try some of the sample problems. If you score well, move on to the next section. However, if you find that you do need to rethink these concepts, then study the description carefully and do all of the exercises section. The questions in the exercises section go more in depth than multiple choice exam questions will, but doing them will help you think through and master the concepts. Answers for all of the exercise questions are provided in the last section. Only use these answers after you are done with the exercise questions (looking at the answers ahead of time will not help you learn). Finally, the last part of each section is example exam questions. These are the types of questions you can expect to find on multiple choice exams related to these skills.

Notes on Astronomy
Survey of Astronomy Lecture Notes
The Search for Life in the Universe
Astronomy Basics (PDF 35P)
Space Based Astronomy (PDF 103P)
Cosmology Primer
Cosmic Background Radiation
Cosmic Strings and other defects
Ned Wright’s Cosmology Tutorial
The Fundamentals of Stellar Astrophysics
Stellar Atmospheres
Astronomy The Solar System
Astronomy 162 Stars, Galaxies and Cosmology
Stars, Galaxies, and Cosmology
Detection of Ether [PDF 164p]
Hyperdimensional Aether Model
Modern Observational Cosmology
Superspace One Thousand and One Lessons in Supersymmetry PDF
Astronomy 122 Birth and Death of Stars